The emergence of Public Safety and Law Enforcement Motorcycle Clubs which allegedly resemble Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs in their style of dress has created controversies within the law enforcement and outlaw biker communities. PSLEMCs represent a social response to the breakdown of the police subculture, specifically, the erosion of brotherhood, internal solidarity, and camaraderie within police departments. Police officers who shared a passion for riding motorcycles created their own unique hybrid subculture in order to restore a sense of brotherhood and belonging amongst themselves. The salient features of the subculture are the brotherhood, the wearing of colours with the 3-piece back patch, and riding Harley Davidson motorcycles in group formation. These features hold symbolic meanings for the club members and serve important functions within the subculture. Through motorcycling, PSLEMCs provide their members with meaningful social participation and interpersonal relations, which re-establishes meaning and a sense of purpose in their lives
Miyagi, Yōko 1938-
Ishizu, Chihiro 1953-
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